January Term 2011
[January 26, 2011]
Shannon Winters (“Mother”) appeals the court’s award of ultimate responsibility to [Father] for their minor child’s health care, and specifically, their minor child’s vaccinations. Father cross appeals the court’s award of substantial timesharing to Mother. We affirm both provisions of the trial court’s order.
While the parties were never married, Mother and Father have a minor child together. When differing religious beliefs resulted in disagreement over the minor child’s health care, Father petitioned the court to establish paternity and each party requested ultimate responsibility over health care, religious, and educational issues.
Mother is a chiropractor and a proponent of holistic medicine. A tenet of her religious beliefs is that God has provided the human body with an innate immune system that enables the body to heal itself. Mother believes that anything introduced into the body to prevent disease or treat illness is against the will of God. Specifically, Mother opposes vaccinations. Accordingly, pursuant to section 1003.22(5)(a), Florida Statutes (2007), Mother obtained an exemption for the minor child from the immunization requirement to attend public school.
Conversely, Father desires that the minor child receive traditional medical care, including well baby exams, blood draws, urinalysis, and vaccinations. The court held three hearings to determine responsibility for the minor child’s health care where multiple experts testified concerning the effectiveness of vaccinations. Mother also testified regarding her religious beliefs, medical care of the minor child, and their parent-child relationship.
A trial court’s determination as to which parent is to have the ultimate authority over a minor child’s immunizations will be upheld if it is supported by competent, substantial evidence. An appellate court will not substitute its judgment for that of the trial court.
While courts have consistently overturned restrictions on exposing a child to a parent’s religious beliefs and practices, they make an exception where there is “a clear, affirmative showing that these religious activities will be harmful to the child.” In the instant case, the court determined that
The issue ... is not one of simply exposing the minor child to the mother’s religious beliefs and practices, it involves an issue that could cause physical and serious harm to the minor child. When parents cannot agree, the court is called upon to break the impasse, and that decision must be made in the best interests of the minor child.
Following conflicting expert testimony , the court determined that it was in the best interests of the minor child to award Father ultimate responsibility to make decisions regarding the minor child’s health care and vaccinations. We affirm the trial court’s decision because it was supported by competent, substantial evidence. See McGrath, 784 So. 2d at 608.
Next, we turn to Father’s cross-appeal where he contends that the trial court erred in awarding substantial timesharing to Mother. An appellate court reviews a trial court’s child custody determination for an abuse of discretion. See Buccini v. Sonara, 989 So. 2d 1288, 1290 (Fla. 4th DCA 2008) (citing Castillo v. Castillo, 950 So. 2d 527, 528 (Fla. 4th DCA 2007)). “Decisions affecting child custody require a careful consideration of the best interests of the child.” Id. (citation omitted).An appellate court will not disturb the trial court’s custody decision unless there is no substantial, competent evidence to support the decision. Id. (citations omitted).A trial court has wide discretion, and that “discretion is abused only where no reasonable man would take the view adopted by the trial court.” Artuso v. Dick, 843 So. 2d 942, 944 (Fla. 4th DCA 2003) (citations omitted).
The determination of the best interests of the child is made by evaluating over twenty factors affecting the welfare and interests of the child. § 61.13(3), Fla. Stat. (2008). “While a trial court need not address each of these factors independently, a trial court must make a finding that the time-sharing schedule is in the child’s best interests.” Kelly v. Colston, 32 So. 3d 186, 187 (Fla. 1st DCA 2010) (citations omitted). The requisite findings must either be stated on the record or set out in the order. Clark v. Clark, 825 So. 2d 1016, 1017 (Fla. 1st DCA 2002). A trial court’s ultimate finding that an award of primary residential custody to one parent is in the best interests of a child is sufficient to sustain the award so long as there is substantial, competent evidence in the record that permits the court to properly evaluate the relevant factors. Id. (citations omitted).
In the instant case, the trial court considered several factors in section 61.13(3), Florida Statutes. Ultimately, the court determined that “[a]fter consideration of all these factors and the findings by the court, the court hereby determines and orders that the mother shall have the substantial timesharing with the minor child.” As the court’s determination was supported by substantial, competent evidence in the record, we affirm the trial court’s award of substantial timesharing to Mother.
[Footnote 1] Dr. Mobeen Rathore testified:
Vaccinations are very safe, very effective. Children who are not vaccinated are at increased risk for problems with infections. Some of these diseases that can be sort of postponed, if you will, can have a much worse outcome.... [C]hildren who do not get vaccinated not only are at increased risk themselves, studies have indicated that they put other children at risk in the schools and where they play.
Dr. Kristen Walker testified that “generally it is better to do [vaccines] on schedule because the antibody titers and the strength of the immunity to that disease would be better.” Conversely, Dr. Lawrence Palevsky testified that “one in five children in this country ... are suffering from some form of neurodevelopmental disorder, so we have to question whether the vaccines play a role in bringing toxic materials into the brain or even impairing the protection that children have with the blood-brain barrier.” He also concluded that “it’s less harmful for a child not to be vaccinated than it is for a child to be vaccinated.” (emphasis added.)
POLEN and CIKLIN, JJ., concur.
Appeal and cross-appeal from the Circuit Court for the Nineteenth
Judicial Circuit, Martin County; Robert R. Makemson, Judge; L.T. Case
Siobhan Helene Shea of Siobhan Helene Shea Appellate Practice, Palm
Beach, for appellant.
Lori I. Steger and Karen O'Brien Steger of Steger & Steger, P.A.,
Stuart, for appellee.
Not final until disposition of timely filed motion for rehearing.
This court decision is available online at:
A century of vaccine paranoia scares many parents away from protecting their children and communities from deadly diseases
Study linking autism to vaccines was elaborate fraud that led to outbreaks of disease and endangered lives of children
Childhood diseases nearly eradicated until an unethical U.K. doctor began to scare parents with vaccine conspiracy theory
How Safe Are Vaccines?
Vaccination dramatically cuts childhood disease
Vaccines and Autism: the zombie meme that won't die
Proposed New York bill would make it easier for students to obtain religious exemption from vaccines
Malawi Christian sect refuses to vaccinate children against measles claiming it is God's will for them to get sick
Christians refuse mumps vaccine, fuel outbreak: Officials
Religious group refuses to immunize children, leading to mumps outbreak
Dutch Reformed conservatives at root of Canadian mumps outbreak
Six members of Apostolic sect in Zimbabwe given suspended prison sentences for medically neglecting children
Some Zimbabwe sect children forcibly immunised for measles, countless others die needlessly
Zimbabwe sect member murders wife after she tried to vaccinate their children against deadly measles outbreak
New measles out-break in Zimbabwe kills 70 more children in two weeks, unvaccinated sect kids at risk
Moderate members of Zimbabwe sect join health teams to stop extremists from killing children out of religious ignorance
Zimbabwe Apostolic sect puts faith before children's rights, prefers uneducated or dead kids over vaccination
Zimbabwe sect father jailed just 18 months for allowing four children to suffer and die needlessly from measles
Zimbabwe measles epidemic worsens after Easter services of religious fundamentalists who oppose vaccinations
Measles outbreak in Zimbabwe reveals Apostolic sects endangering children by refusing to vaccinate them
Unvaccinated children of Apostolic sect in Zimbabwe continue to needlessly die from measles
Zimbabwe health officials insist they will not use law to compel sect members to vaccinate kids in midst of deadly measles outbreak
Zimbabwe sect that shuns vaccinations is hiding sick members from health authorities in midst of measles epidemic
Zimbabwe police assist with door-to-door vaccination after sect children die from measles
Conflict between parental and children's rights at center of Zimbabwean debate over forced vaccinations of sect children
After needless deaths of unvaccinated children Zimbabwe plans law to criminalize medical neglect
Australian judge rejects mother's abuse claims, gives sole parental responsibility of daughter to father in remote cult
Australian woman ordered by court to leave daughter in abusive cult she escaped set to appeal ruling
Australian judge allows girl to remain with father in religious cult, rejects mother's claims of abuse and denial of human rights
Custody Disputes Often Ignore Evidence of Child Abuse
Interview with psychologist Jill Mytton about religious abuse [VIDEO]
Court finds Exclusive Brethren's use of children as weapons in custody disputes is "psychologically cruel, unacceptable and abusive", but father still loses access
New Hampshire court orders home-schooled Christian girl to attend a public school
Child-Custody Deal Favors Escapee of Notorious Cult 'The Family' aka The Children of God
Court terminates parental rights of Alamo cult members to protect the rights of their children, 90 children still being hidden
Freed from Bountiful: a mother wins a custody battle
FLDS survivor fears losing her kids after taking stand against the abusive cult
Judge reverses custody order, allows Mormon polygamist father unrestricted access to kids even though practice illegal
Mormon polygamist fighting custody order, claims his right to free expression overrides his childrens' rights to safety
Judge reduces father's equally shared custody of kids to 4 hours a week because he is agnostic on religion
Manitoba judge rejects custody bid by neo-Nazi parents who painted swastikas on kids to promote racist views
In Satanist's custody battle, law may play devil's advocate
Armed militia family cult in ten-year standoff with law enforcement, hiding kids from father
Britain's highest court rules in custody case that Islamic law discriminates against women